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By Madsen Pirie

A consultant to a hundred and one thinkers within the historical past of philosophy. It summarizes the contribution one hundred and one key philosophers who've made to the advance of philosophical suggestion, because the old Greeks. It bargains a glimpse into each one philosopher's lifestyles and paintings.

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St Anselm 1033–1109 St Anselm is regarded as the father of scholasticism, the philosophy which dominated mediaeval thinking until the Renaissance. Anselm sought to reconcile reason with faith. Reason was not a substitute for faith, he maintained, but could lead people to understand what was first accepted through faith. Born in Burgundy, Anselm became Archbishop of Canterbury in the period after the Norman conquest. He was virtually forced into the post by a king who had experienced conflict from his predecessor.

Having no knowledge of what is objectively good, the sceptic feels no disquiet at falling short of it. He suspends judgement not only about ethics, but even about the reality of matter, time and space. 25. Plotinus c AD 205–270 Plotinus founded the philosophy called Neoplatonism, regarded as sufficiently attractive to vie with Christianity in the Roman world. Plotinus, born in Egypt, became a teacher of philosophy in Rome, achieving a celebrity status that included the admiration of emperors. We know his thought through the Enneads, six sets of nine books edited from his notes and published after his death by his disciple Porphyry.

In these discussions, Plato explores the meaning of things like justice and love, and examines what constitutes a balanced life or a just state. Typically, Socrates cross-examines his interlocutors to clarify the essentials of the point at issue, and Plato’s philosophy emerges from the collection of such dialogues. Plato believed that earthly objects are but pale shadows, or representatives, of their ideal, perfect forms, and that the philosopher should try to gain insights to that perfection. He likened our view to prisoners in a cave watching shadows of things cast on a wall by the light of a fire, and only dimly able to appreciate what the reality might be like.

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