By Karlheinz Hill, Wolfgang von Rybinski, Gerhard Stoll
Alkyl polyglycosides are a brand new new release of multi-application, ecologically secure nonionic surfactants that shape a clearly reusable source. Written via pioneers within the box, this identify info the technological, ecological, physicochemical and function features of alkyl polyglycosides, and discusses the present patent state of affairs of those new commercially conceivable fabrics.
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Extra resources for Alkyl Polyglycosides: Technology, Properties, and Applications
DE-OS 3833780, Henkel (1988) 26. DE-OS 3932173, Henkel(1989) 27. EP-A 0388857, Kao (1989) 28. EP-A 0306650, Hiils (1989) 29. EP 389753, Hiils (1990) 30. WO 91/09043, Henkel(1984) 31. WO 93113113, Henkel (1991) 32. US 5432275, Henkel (1994) 33. EP-A 0387913, Kao (1990) 34. K. ),VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, 1993, p. 163 35. M. Weuthen, R. Kawa, K. Hill, A. Ansmann, Fat Sci. Technol. 97 (1995)209 36. Stoll 0 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH,1997 3. Varvi1 Over recent years, alkyl polyglycosides have developed into commercial surfactants which are produced on a large scale and which are now an ingredient in a wide range of technical and consumer products.
The G’ values also increase with increasing temperature. The frequency behavior of the moduli G’ and G” correspond to a Maxwell liquid only in the isotropic phase. 51 Physicochemical Properties of Alkyl Polyglycosides Structure relaxation time T Is] G', G [Pal 10 20 30 40 50 60 Concentration [%I Figure 13. G' and G" values of CI2m APG at 1 Hz and 2 5 "C [21 10 20 30 40 50 60 Concentration [%I Figure 14. C,,,,, APG structure relaxation times at 25 "C [21 The structure relaxation times are shown in Figure 14.
When butanol is added, a liquidlliquid separation occurs. Alcohols with a longer alkyl chain (n> 4)promote the formation of liquid crystalline phases. A marked dependence on concentration is evident in particular in the case of short-chain and medium-chain alcohols. The quantity of alcohol which has to be added to ensure that a certain phase is formed decreases drastically with increasing alkyl chain length of the alcohol. h phase becomes the dominant phase. This is illustrated in Figure 10 for a mixture of C,,,,, APG,sodium C,,,,, sulfate, hexanol and water with a constant concentration of alkyl polyglycoside.