Download An Introduction to Surfactants by Tharwat F. Tadros PDF

By Tharwat F. Tadros

Surfactants are floor lively brokers, molecules that experience an important position in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate common program in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the nutrition undefined. Their category, actual homes, part habit, their results and purposes are lined during this booklet.

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In this model, micelle formation is considered as a phase separation phenomenon and the cmc is then the saturation concentration of the amphiphile in the monomeric state whereas the micelles constitute the separated pseudophase. Above the cmc, a phase equilibrium exists with constant activity of the surfactant in the micellar phase. The Krafft point is viewed as the temperature at which solid hydrated surfactant, micelles and a solution saturated with undissociated surfactant molecules are in equilibrium at a given pressure.

2 Equilibrium aspects: Thermodynamics of micellization Various approaches have been employed in tackling the problem of micelle formation. The simplest approach treats micelles as a single phase, and this is referred to as the phase separation model. In this model, micelle formation is considered as a phase separation phenomenon and the cmc is then the saturation concentration of the amphiphile in the monomeric state whereas the micelles constitute the separated pseudophase. Above the cmc, a phase equilibrium exists with constant activity of the surfactant in the micellar phase.

However, simple inorganic counterions are very loosely associated with the micelle. The counterions are very mobile (see below) and there is no specific complex formed with a definite counterion-head group distance. In other words, the counterions are associated by long-range electrostatic interactions. A useful concept for characterizing micelle geometry is the critical packing parameter, CPP. 1) where Rmic is the radius of the micelle. The aggregation number, N, is also equal to the ratio of the area of a micelle, Amic , to the cross-sectional area, a, of one surfactant molecule, N= 2 Amic 4⁄ Rmic = .

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