By Noel Burton-Roberts
This hugely winning textual content has lengthy been thought of the normal advent to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. It covers key suggestions equivalent to constituency, classification and capabilities, and in addition utilises tree diagrams all through to aid the reader visualise the constitution of sentences.
In this fourth variation, Analysing Sentences has been completely revised and now encompasses a fresh spouse site with extra actions and routines for college kids and a solution e-book for the in-text routines for professors. the additional actions at the web site provide scholars perform in picking out syntactic phenomena in working textual content and should support to deepen knowing of this subject.
Accessible and transparent, this ebook is the best textbook for readers coming to this subject for the 1st time. that includes many in-text, end-of-chapter and additional workouts, it truly is appropriate for self-directed examine in addition to to be used as center studying on classes.
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Extra resources for Analysing sentences: an introduction to English syntax
This is dealt with in the next chapter (but, if you’re interested, it’s a preposition). We’ve seen that, unlike the modifier–head relations considered earlier, the relation between beside and a stream is a two-way dependency, with both obligatory. e. as modifiers) from the function of elements that relate to a head in a two-way dependency. When a head demands a further expression, that further (obligatory) expression is said to complement the head. A stream functions as the complement of beside.
So, the phrase marker in  serves as a partial analysis of all the sentences considered in this chapter – with the exception of , which, for reasons already given, is a special case. A point to note about  – and phrase markers in general – is that a specification of the functions of the constituents (given in brackets in ) is not strictly part of the phrase marker, and is not normally included. This is because the functions of constituents follows directly from other information already contained in the phrase marker – information about category and position.
A good way of doing this is to decide on the exact question Heseltine is reported in  to have asked. It will help to make a written note of the two questions. Having identified the two meanings in the way suggested, you shouldn’t have much difficulty in deciding which interpretation demands that the sequence does form a constituent and which demands that it does not. The two different questions that could have been asked by Heseltine are [a] How old is Sam? and [b] How is old Sam? As these different questions show, on the first interpretation, [a], old belongs with how to form the phrase how old.