By N. H. Georgopapadakou, R. B. Sykes (auth.), Professor Dr. Arnold L. Demain, Ms. Nadine A. Solomon (eds.)
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Extra resources for Antibiotics: Containing the Beta-Lactam Structure, Part II
Very minor PBPs ( ~ 1% of total PBPs) are enclosed in parentheses Unless indicated otherwise, data are from GEORGOPAPADAKOU and LIU 1980a Major PBPs in whole cells but not solubilized membranes; partially soluble (i. , found mostly in the supernatant after sonication and centrifugation), especially the 47,OOO-dalton PBP Although the major PBP, it is less than 5% of the 40,OOO-dalton (major) PBP of E. coli la Ib 2 3 4 5/6 Salmonella typhimurium a la Ib 2 3 4a 4b 5/6 Proteus vulgaris 2 3 4 5/6 t:d o· .....
The enzyme is also inhibited by EDTA and divalent cations (both at 10 mM) (TAMURA et al. 1976). Mutants lacking carboxypeptidase IA have been obtained by mutagenesis (MATSUHAsm et al. 1978). Interestingly, they retained the ability to bind penicillin G, as suggested by the detection of PBP 5/6 (MATsUHAsm et al. 1979). Carboxypeptidase I B of E. coli is highly sensitive to penicillin which releases slowly (half-life: 90 min at 37 0q, probably as penicilloic acid. In addition to carboxypeptidase activity (substrate: UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala-l'-D-Glu-meso-Dap-DAla-D-Ala) the enzyme also has natural model transeptidase activity (substrate: LAla-Y-D-Glu-meso-Dap-D-Ala-D-Ala), forming cross-linked tetrapeptide dimers (NGUYEN-DISTECHE et al.
In contrast to preparative isoelectric focusing in density gradients, analytical isoelectric focusing does not give precise absolute pI values (LABIA and BARTHELEMY 1977) but nevertheless is useful for comparison studies. Research on the production and spread of p-lactamases in bacteria has been greatly aided by two breakthroughs in the field of molecular genetics: (1) the discovery of R factors (OCHIAI et al. 1959) which provided the first proof of transferable nonchromosomal replicating material from one bacterial cell to another; (2) the formulation of the concept of transposition (HEDGES et al.