Download Œuvres, tome 1 (La Pochothèque) by Henri Bergson PDF

By Henri Bergson

Bergson a connu une carrière à los angeles fois brillante et traditionnelle : ancien élève de l’École normale supérieure, agrégé de philosophie, il devient professeur de lycée et soutient sa thèse, Essai sur les données immédiates de l. a. sense of right and wrong, en 1889. Maître de conférence à l’École normale supérieure en 1898, il est élu deux plus tard au Collège de France où ses cours vont attirer un auditoire considérable. En 1907, après los angeles parution de L’Évolution Créatrice, sa réputation devient une gloire mondiale ; on parle de bergsonisme comme on a pu parler de cartésianisme ou de kantisme, plusieurs ouvrages d’importance lui sont consacrés, et los angeles hauteur de sa pensée comme le brio de son écriture lui velent d’être élu à l’Académie française en 1914 et de recevoir en 1928 le prix Nobel de littérature. À partir de los angeles découverte de los angeles durée, un nouveau spiritualisme philosophique se met en position dans son œuvre, appuyé sur l’étude critique des sciences, mais aussi lié à une judgment of right and wrong animée d’un élan very important, et l’intuition va devenir un thème majeur de los angeles doctrine de Bergson qui s’attache à fonder un pragmatisme moderne et une doctrine d’élévation de l’âme. Et cependant sa philosophie suscite des hostilités : son spiritualisme lui vaut d’être taxé d’irrationalisme, sa philosophie de los angeles vie est critiquée par les catholiques, et sa belief du temps par Einstein. Après sa mort, il arrive qu’on voit en Bergson un philosophe académique dont il convient de se détourner, et sa pensée, pour une half passée dans le domaine commun, perd sa strength incisive : c’est précisément elle qu’il convient de retrouver pour une lecture renouvelée de son œuvre.

Cet ouvrage réunit : Lucrèce (extraits) - Essais sur les données immédiates de l. a. conscience - Matière et mémoire - Le Rire - L’Évolution Créatrice

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But to turn from planning the journey to the road itself. The Greek praise of poverty grew out of the limits imposed by the austere Greek land­ scape. The relative poverty of the place ensured that great accumulations of wealth were not easy or common. Hard work and temperance were necessary not only economically, but socially, for all had to contribute to the common stock if envy, hatred, and even civil war were to be avoided. The poverty of the Greek landscape also contributed to its defense, notably during the Persian invasions; traditional hard living was celebrated as one cause of Greek virility, machismo, and military valor.

Work makes the farmer rich, and riches mean not the leisure to write poetry (something Hesiod does not discuss in his Works and Days) but rather possession of things-a house, oxen, a plough, a slave, and barns brimming with grain. 2° For Hesiod, even when the harvest is in, the wise farmer should not dawdle before the blacksmith's fire, but plough and repair through the winter. 21 Thus, contrary to Hemelrijk and others, one might be rich and yet work very hard. 22 The Cynics were poor idlers in the eyes of many onlookers, but they were clever enough to capitalize on other common associations to claim the contrary, as we will examine below.

But this latter, qualitative definition is most characteristic of thinkers in the Socratic tradition, especially the Cynics. Far more typical of popular attitudes is a quantitative approach: from Hesiod to Diogenes' con­ temporaries, Greeks popularly held that the rich are distinguished by quan­ tity of external possessions. This differs little from contemporary notions. 24 Herodotus' Cro­ esus was rich because of his big treasure-rooms, not his leisure. 2 8 The general Nicias was rich because he owned a thousand sfaves; his son Niceratus laments in Xenophon's Symposium that Homer has corrupted him, for he does not measure his wealth in the Socratic manner, but tallies it up in numbers of tripods, talents of gold, cauldrons, and horses.

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